Bitcoins kaufen, Bitcoin Kurs bei Bitcoin.de!

Always bet on RED

[link]

BeanCash

Bitbean/Beancash name change. Bitbeaner seems to continue to do nothing. Nothing fast at least. A few special community members are attempting to revive its glory days. See sidebar for current info.
[link]

Giftcoin Mining

/giftcoinmining is a subreddit dedicated to mining the Giftcoin crypto-currency.
[link]

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Someone on bitcointalk posted a really nice mining calculator site which accounts for difficulty changes. It's the only one like this I've found. /r/EtherMining

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Someone on bitcointalk posted a really nice mining calculator site which accounts for difficulty changes. It's the only one like this I've found. /EtherMining submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Transaction dust (or how to calculate bitcoin fee?) /bitcointalk.org

Transaction dust (or how to calculate bitcoin fee?) /bitcointalk.org submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

How to calculate in what % of Bitcoin holder are you? /bitcointalk.org

How to calculate in what % of Bitcoin holder are you? /bitcointalk.org submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

[PSA] Electrum and Eclair both support Testnet-LN to learn about LN

Update

I rewrote this post to clean it up a bit and add more context.
With the last few drops of Electrum it's been much easier to use LN. I've played around with Electrum-desktop on testnet. Everything worked great, and it is a great way to learn about channel capacity and invoices without having to put real money at risk. Electrum has a "swap" button to adjust capacity but I think it may be broken on testnet presently. There are a few ways to adjust capacity / liquidity that I'll discuss below.

Get Electrum running

  1. Install Electrum 4.0.2 and run it on testnet enabling LN.
  2. Get testnet BTC and send it to Electrum
  3. Open a channel in Electrum with either a known entity, or use their channel suggestion
  4. Wait an hour or so for the channel to open.
  5. Perform a submarine-swap operation to give you a 50/50 capacity
  6. Wait for the swap to complete

Balance capacity

LN channels have a (local) sending capacity and a (remote) receiving capacity. To verify your local/remote capacity click on the channel and view "Details". New channels default to 100%/0% local/remote capacity, meaning you can send, but not receive. There is also some rule that requires you to be below 90% local before you can receive anything. So if you need to receive payments on LN before you spend 10% of your local capacity you will need to find a way to balance local/remote. As mentioned before, the easiest is just to spend (try starblocks), but if you don't have anything to spend on there are some other options

Test Node Visibility

Once you free up some receive capacity, you also need to ensure that your node is reachable. In the default config your node will not be publicly visible. Electrum will handle the last hop for you, but your sender still need to at least be able to route to one of the nodes you have receive capacity on. This may occationally fail causing "Path not found" errots when sending, or when others send to you. In the Electrum preferences there are some options to run local watchtowers and keep the app resident. This will help since your wallet needs to be running for it to receive payments. But even if you enable all options sometimes you will just end up on an isolated node. If this happens, take care to ensure you connect to nodes that are highly connected to others (view 1ml highly connect list).
If you want to test your visibility, just paste an invoice in this thread and hopefully someone can try to send you some tBTC-LN.
submitted by brianddk to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

2. CRYPTOASSET MARKETS

Tozex #TOZToken #Blockchain #Crypto #Project

By the end of December 2017, cryptoasset market cap breaks $600bn meanwhile the worldwide daily exchange volume has reached an astonishing $5 billion according to CoinMarketCap. Other than Bitcoin, new cryptocurrencies with new technologies and features have been emerging vigorously in recent years. And their total value and exchange volume has gone over 50% of the global market. Currently, the daily exchange volume of each worldwide top 10 platform has already reached $100 million and maintained the prosperous development. Based on the calculation of 0.1% commission, the daily income of a vibrant platform shall reach $100,000.
Bitcointalk username - rajveerkamboj
submitted by ishantkamboj to tozexofficial [link] [comments]

Welcome to the Official Energi Cryptocurrency Reddit!

Welcome to the Official Energi Cryptocurrency Reddit!

https://preview.redd.it/mymfi39kf2c51.png?width=200&format=png&auto=webp&s=71c90d32c9bf87dbd393e85bbeedb753e202a5b0
Below you will find a Table of Contents that will cover all the fundamentals of the cryptocurrency.

Table of Contents

  1. What is Energi?
  2. What are the Fundamentals of Energi?
    1. Scalability
    2. Funding
    3. Governance
    4. Inflation
    5. Distribution
    6. Decentralization
    7. Long Term Vision
  3. Coin Specs
  4. How to Get Started
    1. Official Energi Website
    2. Social Media
    3. Exchanges
    4. Energi Block Explorers
    5. Wallet Downloads
    6. Proof-of-Stake Setup Guides
    7. Masternode Setup Guide
  5. FAQ

1. What is Energi

Energi is a self-funding (no ICO and no premine) cryptocurrency that has a purpose to become the world’s leading cryptocurrency with the unification of Smart Contracts, Governance and Self-funding Treasury to ensure longevity and enable rapid growth. You can read more about why we decided to self-fund and chose not to conduct an ICO here.
Energi provides a small allocation to Proof-of-Stake (PoS) rewards, takes a bulk of the coin issuance and gives it to its treasury and active Masternodes. Energi also allocates 10% on-going reward to the leadership of the Energi Backbone, which is significantly less compared to today’s ICOs’ rewarding their founders between 20–50% of the tokens distributed. Another trait that sets Energi apart from ICOs is they give an on-going 10% allocation through each block reward, rather than rewarding the founders up-front.

2. What are the Fundamentals of Energi?

  • Scalability
1 minute block times and a 2 megabyte block size limit provide Energi with a vast transaction capacity for regular on-chain transactions. This allows for plenty of space on the blockchain for extremely fast transactions with very low fees.
Energi features a powerful on-chain scaling solution with a system of incentivized full nodes called Energi Masternodes. A Masternode is a full node backed by 1,000 NRG collateral that provides level 2 scalability to the Energi Cryptocurrency. 40% of the emissions of Energi is allocated to Masternodes, providing an extremely strong incentive to grow the number of full nodes and scalability of the network.

  • Funding
A key feature of Energi is its powerful treasury system. Energi makes up to 40% of the emissions available to the treasury, to be utilized in a manner that provides maximum benefit.
Treasury allocation is decentralized, allowing for submitted proposals from anyone, to be voted on by Masternodes and paid out from the emissions.
Energi has a 14 day treasury cycle, allowing quick payments for proposal authors and contributors, as well as strategic responsiveness to effective proposals. Energi is guided by the principle that every dollar spent from its funding model should yield more than one dollar of value in return. Thanks to a 14 day treasury cycle, the Energi team is able to measure results and respond quickly to changes in strategy.

  • Governance
The Energi Treasury is a decentralized governance model designed with Masternodes as caretakers, with voting rights on how to best utilize treasury funding.
This governance model reduces risk by allowing participation from everyone who holds 1,000 NRG as a Masternode. In this way, the Energi community can work together on how to best build the strategic direction of Energi.

  • Inflation
Energi Cryptocurrency has a simple rate of inflation at 1 million coins per month with no maximum cap. This ensures consistency in funding allocation, Masternode rewards, and PoS rewards, making the economics of the cryptocurrency more understandable for everyone who chooses to participate in Energi.
No coin supply limit ensures that Energi is prepared for the long term, avoiding “bubble” economics caused by dramatic early inflation that in most coins only serves to benefit founders ahead of increased adoption.

  • Distribution
Energi conducted a fair launch on April 14, 2018 with no ICO and no premine. Prior to launch, the Energi team gave a specific time and date for the launch of its main net, which its vibrant community eagerly awaited, so that mining could begin fairly, again avoiding centralization among the coin founders (It's important to note that Energi has transitioned from Proof-of-Work consensus to a Proof-of-Stake consensus).
Energi Masternode payments were designed to begin at block 216000, which occurred on September 18, 2018, almost 160 days after launch. This ensured time to list Energi on exchanges, and to grow the community, encouraging fair and equitable distribution before the extremely powerful Masternode rewards began. It is all too common for Masternode coins to feature a premine, which has the effect of centralizing distribution among the founders and early adopters.
From 2018 to 2020, Energi distributed nearly 4 million coins to users who contributed to spreading awareness of the project with social media activities about Energi, such as tweets, follows, and subscriptions on all major social media platforms.

  • Decentralization
Decentralized governance with Masternodes helps to ensure everyone is able to participate in Energi and help guide the project to achieve the best results. The change to the requirement to run a Masternode, from 10 000 NRG to 1 000 NRG, has allowed more people to be involved and boosted decentralization for the whole project.

  • Long Term Vision
All of the above features seamlessly work together in concert, to ensure that Energi is prepared for the long term. Rather than try to closely find a niche in the market, Energi is prepared to adapt and overcome all challenges for many years to come. Energi’s use case is that of a traditional cryptocurrency, such as Bitcoin. However, Energi’s strategy is to excel by avoiding the pitfalls of previous projects, while further utilizing and improving upon the most powerful ideas in the cryptocurrency space.

3. Coin Specs

Ticker: NRG
Block time: 1 minute.
Hashing Algorithm: Dagger-Hashimoto (similar to Ethereum).
Masternode requirements: 1,000 Energi.
Treasury cycle: Every 14 days.
Approximately 1 million Energi will be released per month. The allocations can be observed easily as “10/10/40/40.”
10% will go to the Energi Backbone.
10% to the PoS participants
40% to Masternodes.
40% to the Treasury.
Thus, for every block, allocations are: 2.28 Energi to the Backbone, 2.28 Energi to the PoS participants, 9.14 Energi to the Treasury, and 9.14 Energi to Masternodes.
Since Treasury allocations are paid in two-week cycles, they are made in lump sums of approximately 184,000 Energi every 14 days.
In order to allow for widespread distribution of Energi before Masternode payments began, Masternode rewards were delayed until day 150. This was to allow the airdrop campaign to be completed and ensure a large amount of NRG is spread out through the community. Until that point, Masternode rewards were redirected to the Treasury. Thus for the first 5 months, the Treasury gained approximately 368,000 Energi every two weeks (about 800k Energi per month). The airdrop campaign was designed to release ~4 million Energi to the community.

4. How to Get Started

  • Energi Official Website
https://www.energi.world/

  • Social Media
Bitcointalk: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4912743
Discord: https://discordapp.com/invite/sCtgNC3
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/energicrypto/
Github: https://github.com/energicryptocurrency
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/energi-core/
Medium: https://medium.com/energi
Publish 0x: https://www.publish0x.com/@energi
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/energicryptocurrency/
Steemit: https://steemit.com/@energi
Telegram: https://t.me/energicrypto
Telegram Announcement: https://t.me/energiannouncements
Twitter: https://twitter.com/Energicrypto
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCCABQly0NNR2j_M_iDpy8mA/

  • Exchanges
DigiFinex: https://www.digifinex.com/trade/BTC/NRG
KuCoin - BTC: https://www.kucoin.com/trade/NRG-BTC
KuCoin - ETH: https://www.kucoin.com/trade/NRG-ETH
HitBTC - BTC: https://hitbtc.com/NRG-to-BTC
BitBNs - INR: https://bitbns.com/trade/#/nrg
Mercatox - BTC: https://mercatox.com/exchange/NRG/BTC
Mercatox - TUSD: https://mercatox.com/exchange/NRG/BTC
Bithumb - BTC: https://www.bithumb.pro/en-us/spot/trade?q=NRG-BTC
Bithumb - USDT: https://www.bithumb.pro/en-us/spot/trade?q=NRG-USDT
Citex - BTC: https://trade.citex.co.ktrade/NRG_BTC
Citex - USDT: https://trade.citex.co.ktrade/NRG_USDT
Beaxy - BTC: https://www.beaxy.com/trading-paiNRG-BTC
CoinAll - USDT: https://www.coinall.com/spot/full#product=nrg_usdt
WhiteBit - BTC: https://whitebit.com/trade/NRG_BTC
HitBTC - BTC: https://hitbtc.com/exchange/NRG-to-BTC

  • Energi Block Explorers
Gen 3 Explorer: https://explorer.energi.network/
Gen 3 Calculator: https://nexus.energi.network/reward-calculator
Gen 2 Explorer: https://explorer.gen2.energi.network/

  • Wallet Downloads
Gen 3 - MyEnergiWallet: https://docs.energi.software/en/downloads/myenergiwallet
Gen 3 - Core Node: https://docs.energi.software/en/downloads/core-node

  • Proof-of-Stake Setup Guides
https://docs.energi.software/en/staking-guide

  • Masternode Setup Guide
https://docs.energi.software/en/Masternode-guide

5. FAQs

Gen 3 Wiki: https://docs.energi.software/en/home
General: https://docs.energi.software/en/faq/general
Core Node Sync: https://docs.energi.software/en/core-node-troubleshoot
Keystore: https://docs.energi.software/en/faq/keystore
Masternode: https://docs.energi.software/en/faq/Masternode
Migration: https://docs.energi.software/en/faq/migration
Security: https://docs.energi.software/en/faq/security
Staking: https://docs.energi.software/en/faq/staking
submitted by energicrypto to energicryptocurrency [link] [comments]

Every Way I Have Made Money Online Since 2015

I have been making money online since 2015. There are so many ways that I can't remember them all, but here is a list of most of them - including the most significant ones. Hope this helps you somehow. As I'm from Canada, many of these (but not all) are for Canadians.
From highest-earning to lowest, for your convenience:
Gig Earnings
Bitcointalk.org $50,000
LocalBitcoins affiliate (non-ref) $10,000
Reddit posting $5,000
HealthyWage personal challenge (non-ref) $3,400 (profit)
Dietbet $200/month
Slickdeals.net posting $2,000
Selling hoverboards $2,000
Bank signup bonus $300
Coinbase Earn (non-ref) $150
HealthyWage individual challenges (non-ref) $50/month
Selling LocalBitcoins trading guide $100
UberEats/DoorDash restaurant $100
Fiverr $100
Selling email list that I scraped $100
Black Friday meal kit deal $100
Craigslist study $75
Blockchain.com airdrop $65
Growing hydroponic lettuce at home $15/month
Tangerine bank (use Orange Key: 59103835S1 to get $50) $50
Crypto.com (non-ref) signup bonus $50
Coinberry (non-ref) signup bonus $30
Honeygain (non-ref) $20
Rakuten cash back Canada, USA (non-ref) $10
Amazon affiliate $10
Instead of telling the whole story of each method, and since you care most about the highest-earning opportunities, let's discuss those and if anyone has questions about something not mentioned in this post - don't hesitate to ask, I'm happy to explain.

Bitcointalk

This is by far my biggest earner. Basically, back in mid 2017, I realized that the crypto market was starting another bull run. I had previously learned that it was possible to make money advertising for companies by adding their custom signature to my account profile so that each post contains links to their website/products underneath it. They paid a lot more back then, because Bitcoin was only valued at around $700-1,000 when I started.
This forum also doesn't care about having multiple accounts - in fact, it's fully allowed. Some people have hundreds of accounts. Therefore, I quickly searched the web for people selling their accounts... and bought a bunch of decently-ranked ones such that I was able to post full-time essentially, making up to $5/post which only takes a minute or two. The best campaign I joined is one called DeepOnion, which paid almost $30,000 in about 1 month!!! All I had to do is make 10 posts a week per account, and they deposited their coin to my wallet. After it was added to an exchange, the price quickly rose and one night my portfolio value went from $3,000 to over $20,000. I sold literally at the peak! I also made money from Bitcoin paying campaigns (they pay in BTC as opposed to their token/coin). Another big score was a campaign called ATLANT, where I made well over $20,000 ...however, didn't sell my tokens and now they are worth a fraction of that. Oh well.
With the above said, I don't recommend doing this anymore, as the forum is filled with 3rd world spammers who realized that it was possible to make big money a couple of years ago, and now they have bots spamming constantly and applying to campaigns and such. I haven't posted there in a long time, probably over 6 months, because it wasn't worth it anymore. It was great while it lasted.

LocalBitcoins (non-ref)

Notice how most of my earning comes from crypto? :p
Well, I found a high-ranking Reddit post about Bitcoin that was ranked in the top 3 on Google for multiple good long-string keywords. In other words, many people (I'm talking hundreds) were finding it on a daily basis. I got my comment to the top spot, which includes an affiliate link and so over 5,000 people ended up signing up and I made a lot from it. My estimate is about $10,000 USD equivalent (pays in BTC daily), although could be more.

Reddit Posting

This is the same deal as Slickdeals, as explained below. However, after SD banned my accounts, since I had a high-karma Reddit account, I realized that my clients might be interested in advertising in "deals" subreddits (mostly Amazon, although it varied). Sure enough, they were and I got paid up to $300 for a single post in popular subreddits.

HealthyWage (non-ref)

This is an app that pays you to lose weight. There are a few different types of challenges, including personal, individual and team challenges. The personal challenge is the one I am currently focusing on, as I bet $125/mo over 12 months ($1500), and if successful, stand to win $4,900 or $3,400 profit. I started at 360 pounds, and must weigh out at 180 pounds or less after 1 year to win. (I know, it's lots of weight to lose, but there is tons of money at stake.)
If you join using my referral link, you get $40 added to your prize and I also get $40. By the way, most people who join make a mistake of betting too much or too little. For example, you might get the same winnings by betting $100/month or $500/month, because the algorithm caps out at a certain amount. With that said, use this calculator to get the exact amount that you should bet to maximize your ROI (click on "Calculate a Healthy Wager"). I didn't know about this before signing up, and ended up betting more than I had to make the same amount (although only $12).

Slickdeals

I had a startup similar to Groupon, and had made a few Slickdeals accounts because of that. One day while driving, it occurs to me that people might be willing to have me post on SD using my account since the traffic is so high. Well, I drove straight to the library and posted my Skype contact on about 30 threads on Warrior forum, and that same night I was getting contacts from China and it never stopped. This was way back in 2015, and I had 3 accounts and made $20 per post. I was doing about 1 post/day and sometimes getting $5 to do upvotes as well. All-in-all, after contracting out someone on Fiverr to automate the whole thing, my accounts ended up getting banned and that was that.

Selling hoverboards

During the hoverboard craze of 2015, I made a couple of rudimentary sites and managed to sell about 12 in total, making about ~$100 profit per sale, and selling the sites for $750 and $250 respectively for about $2,000 in total profit. This is the first time I used YouTube as a marketing medium, specifically paid product placement, which you can see here. This video sold 4 boards & I sold the site for $250, and the board cost about $350, so it was a good deal in the end.
Well, that about sums up my online earning history. I'm sure there are (many) other ways I've earned a buck, but simply don't remember them all. Again, don't hesitate to ask any questions you may have and I am more than happy to answer. Thanks for reading.
Edit: it's great to see that this post is interesting to many people
My best suggestions to make fast, easy money are the following:
  • Growing Hydroponic Lettuce this is a new one to me, but I recently started growing lettuce and not only is it super enjoyable, but it's much more cost-effective than buying it from the store. Checkout this video which shows how. All that is needed is a container with some 2 or 3 inch holes, some "net cups" to hold the lettuce in, and some liquid nutrients which are available on Amazon.
  • Coinberry (non-ref) I literally signed up, verified my account and got the bonus within an hour. There is a 3 day hold to withdraw funds, but it's an easy $20 and they also give an extra $10 "customer appreciation bonus" after your first deposit, so you get $30 total.
  • HealthyWage (non-ref) If you need to lose weight anyway, then you might as well get paid while doing so. I recommend doing a minimum amount of weight-loss over 6 months, to make it easier on yourself. When you signup with my link, we both get $40.
  • Dietbet no ref link, but this is a really good earner. I make about $200/month with it by playing in 9 games simultaneously.
  • Honeygain (non-ref) this one is entirely passive, and I highly recommend it. Simply download the app and you make money for browsing online, without doing anything else. I make about $50/year with just my phone. When you signup with my link, we both get $5.
  • Crypto.com (non-ref) this is a legit cryptourrency site that gives you $50 when you sign up & deposit $250. I know it's legit, because I just signed up a few days ago and already got my bonus. Simply buy their crypto in the app with your credit card & stake it for 6 months, and they give you $50.
submitted by Separate-Time to WorkOnline [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to ethereum [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to privacycoins [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to ethtrader [link] [comments]

CRYPTOASSET MARKETS

Tozex #TOZToken #Blockchain #Crypto #Project

By the end of December 2017, cryptoasset market cap breaks $600bn meanwhile the worldwide daily exchange volume has reached an astonishing $5 billion according to CoinMarketCap. Other than Bitcoin, new cryptocurrencies with new technologies and features have been emerging vigorously in recent years. And their total value and exchange volume has gone over 50% of the global market. Currently, the daily exchange volume of each worldwide top 10 platform has already reached $100 million and maintained the prosperous development. Based on the calculation of 0.1% commission, the daily income of a vibrant platform shall reach $100,000. Bitcointalk Username- rajveerkamboj
submitted by ishantkamboj to tozexofficial [link] [comments]

Beginner guide to Electrum on Testnet-LN allowing you to learn without cost.

Update

I rewrote this post to clean it up a bit and add more context. The original can still be found here
With the last few drops of Electrum it's been much easier to use LN. I've played around with Electrum-desktop on testnet. Everything worked great, and it is a great way to learn about channel capacity and invoices without having to put real money at risk. Electrum has a "swap" button to adjust capacity but I think it may be broken on testnet presently. There are a few ways to adjust capacity / liquidity that I'll discuss below.

Get Electrum running

  1. Install Electrum 4.0.2 and run it on testnet enabling LN.
  2. Get testnet BTC and send it to Electrum
  3. Open a channel in Electrum with either a known entity, or use their channel suggestion
  4. Wait an hour or so for the channel to open.
  5. Perform a submarine-swap operation to give you a 50/50 capacity
  6. Wait for the swap to complete

Balance capacity

LN channels have a (local) sending capacity and a (remote) receiving capacity. To verify your local/remote capacity click on the channel and view "Details". New channels default to 100%/0% local/remote capacity, meaning you can send, but not receive. There is also some rule that requires you to be below 90% local before you can receive anything. So if you need to receive payments on LN before you spend 10% of your local capacity you will need to find a way to balance local/remote. As mentioned before, the easiest is just to spend, but if you don't have anything to spend on there are some other options

Test Node Visibility

Once you free up some receive capacity, you also need to ensure that your node is reachable. In the default config your node will not be publicly visible. Electrum will handle the last hop for you, but your sender still need to at least be able to route to one of the nodes you have receive capacity on. This may occationally fail causing "Path not found" errots when sending, or when others send to you. In the Electrum preferences there are some options to run local watchtowers and keep the app resident. This will help since your wallet needs to be running for it to receive payments. But even if you enable all options sometimes you will just end up on an isolated node. If this happens, take care to ensure you connect to nodes that are highly connected to others.
If you want to test your visibility, just paste an invoice in this thread and hopefully someone can try to send you some tBTC-LN.
submitted by brianddk to brianddk [link] [comments]

Arle Ecosystem; Storing your various data

Arle Ecosystem; Storing your various data
The dominance of the blockchain and the crypto currency is not a joke or a fantasy, because the growth and its importance to the world in general is easily accessible and observable by all in the whole world.
Take another instance, and observe the rate of massive adoption of the blockchain and crypto currency by people of different countries using bitcoin as an alternative payment system, integrating ripple with banking services, and also with the aid of smart contracts helping several ecosystems in the blockchain world today.
But do you know that most blockchain platforms are centralized when it comes to your data and information; and this betrays the blockchain ideology on all grounds, several projects have tried to conceal the data, records and identities of several users; and it deserves a better blockchain to do that which is why Arcs fits the Task.

https://preview.redd.it/9pw49kv62xb51.png?width=842&format=png&auto=webp&s=83590bee23cb5a2f05a5972c96c6849aa2aa9050
What is Arcs?
Arcs is providing the whole blockchain system a new world token and a blockchain ecosystem in Alre; Alre is a blockchain ecosystem that provides the entire platform functionality for management and storing of different various data structures, which are essential to businesses and to also monetize data. Monetize data also means earning from storing datas.
And to make the alre platform very functional, the arcs token comes to aid; the arcs token will help the platform achieve non centralized system by operating in a unique way.
How does the Alre Ecosystem operate?
The Alre Ecosystem is operated to work based on 3 functionalities; The functionalities provide the system a flexible framework; that makes it easy for companies, industries t build their system scenarios and application, as well as store their data with powerful insights from the data analytics.


The 3 functionalities of the Alre Ecosystem are;
  1. Information input; This is where data, information of individuals or companies are received into the alre platform. The data requested to be inputted will include gender, address, questionairres answers, blog texts and profile links to social media accounts. The interesting facts is that the Alre is designed using the Internet of Things IoT blockchain and the Artificial Intelligence AI functions to store personal details, health details and location details with the consent of the user, as you input your details to be stored safely on the Alre ecosystem, you receive the arcs token as an incentive.
  2. Information storage; The Alre system calculates the has values for every inputted data and stores it on the blockchain platform automatically. This process ensures that the integrity of the platform is protected and also ensures that data are always verified and never tampered with.
  3. Information utilization; One of the important features of the Alre platform is that it allows companies to integrate their businesses and applications and even offer their own data bank services.
Overview for how the functionalities work is below

https://preview.redd.it/9qlklthc2xb51.png?width=791&format=png&auto=webp&s=866f15ba837d19e243b862a2855045dbefe199a8
In a nutshell, the Alre platform ensures that;
  1. You get to earn as you store and save your data records;
  2. Prevents data tampering that has been existent in a long while;
  3. You get to transact data with other platform users;
  4. You get to earn the arcs token, trade it, or hodl it.
For further information about the platform, do use the links below;
WEBSITE | TWITTER | TELEGRAM | MEDIUM | WHITE PAPER
Author: alekseikivolov
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2636846
submitted by alekseikivolov to u/alekseikivolov [link] [comments]

Learn about KoinPro!

Learn about KoinPro!
It is new for You and You are worried that bitcoin trading is not on your card, because there are so many orders and options on these complex boards that it worries you? We're happy to let you know that you're right, because KoinPro has been set up for you. Two things that are important in a double-hope contract require easy setup and limited risk.
You just need to learn about KoinPro!
Double contracts are simple and do not require additional technical knowledge. They are traded 100 times and are calculated automatically when a position gains or loses 100% of its value. This means you don't need to check. Your store is constant because the process will be automated as soon as your goal reaches 100 times.
Are you the type who needs the flexibility to retire when he reaches his target profit or loss? Then the permanent KoinPro BTC / USD contract is designed for you thanks to advanced options that give you more control. The permanent BTC / USD contract is traded 100 times leverage, 100 percent leverage means that KoinPro retailers will make a profit in the face of market changes.
The best qualities in the world mean nothing if the dealer's money in exchange is dangerous. Traders and investors are most concerned about the security of their exchanges. And this is very worrying about stock market attacks, which are forcing many people to lose money.
So, is KoinPro confident that future exchanges will be protected from malicious attacks that could lead to a loss of trading funds?

If you want to join the platform now, first get acquainted with the official platform information:
submitted by Alex1998Sasha to KoinPro [link] [comments]

Peercoin v0.9 (Codename Strider) Released - Includes Update to PoS Reward Economics - Hard Fork is June 8th, 2020 - Upgrade Today!

Peercoin v0.9 (Codename Strider) Released - Includes Update to PoS Reward Economics - Hard Fork is June 8th, 2020 - Upgrade Today!
NOTE: If you are new to Peercoin, check out the Peercoin Primer, a short 5 part video series covering the basic fundamentals of Peercoin.

https://preview.redd.it/3v73ap26c4z41.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=67e30f6f72e7e7ba1370f74a3ad952a3d951f9dd

Peercoin v0.9 Released!

We are pleased to announce that after many hard months of work, Peercoin v0.9 (Codename Strider) is complete and a hard fork is planned for Monday, June 8th, 2020 at 12:00:00 UTC. You must upgrade your wallet client before then!

Changelog:

Peercoin release v0.9.0
  • RFC-0019: PoW Block Spacing
  • RFC-0018: PoS Rewards Adjustment
  • RFC-0017: Limit Effective Coinage to One Year
  • RFC-0015: Reduce Time Drift
  • allow staking=0 command to disable minting
  • ability to filter out mint transactions in the QT wallet

Summary

While Peercoin v0.8 (Mantis) was largely about modernizing the codebase and improving the technical capabilities of the reference node software, the v0.9 (Strider) development cycle was about the economics of the Peercoin cryptocurrrency.
Both the PoW and PoS aspects of the network have been modified. Proof-of-Work changes are rather minimal; in summary target block spacing has been set to 60 minutes, rather than having dynamic PoW block spacing target. Block spacing is currently approximately 60 minutes anyway, so this may not sound like a big change, but it stops some PoW pools from trying to game the system. By making PoW more predictable, RFC-0019 brings inflationary stability to the overall system.
That change is minor when compared to the modification of the Proof-of-Stake side of the system. Some of you may have been following the discussion on RFC-0011, which was ongoing for over a year, and you may have noticed that RFC-0011 was rejected about two weeks ago and replaced with RFC-0018.
In my personal opinion, RFC-0011 is a great idea, probably the best idea thrown around here in the last couple of years, but ultimately it's too complex and we could not get consensus about it. The gist of both RFC-0011 and RFC-0018 is that the Peercoin money supply inflates at a rate of 1% on paper, but we are nowhere near that in practice.
In the old system, in order to have PoS inflation at 1%, a full 100% of all peercoins would have to start minting and solving blocks. This is simply impossible. In reality, over the last couple years Peercoin's PoS inflation has only been between 0.10% and 0.20%, which is far from the "promised" annual 1%. Due to the very rough history of this beautiful blockchain, namely the closure of btc-e, dozens of exchange hacks and closures, as well as a couple of de-listings, we are in a situation today where nearly half of the monetary supply has not been moved for over two years and we can consider those coins lost for all intents and purposes.
The basic principle of RFC-0011 was the following: the Peercoin network promises a steady inflation of 1% on monetary supply, and if you want a cut of it: mint. In essence, if only 20% of all peercoins are minting, the effective reward for active minters would be closer to 5% per year. However, the problem with this scheme is that minters would try to game the system and only mint when minting participation is low. Thus, we came up with RFC-0018, which yields similar results, but keeps the reward calculation simple and prevents gaming of the algorithm. You can read more about the change here.
Long story short, the network will reward active minters more, while keeping the overall inflation around 1%.
Accompanied with an expected inflation drop from increasing PoW hashrate, overall monetary inflation will largely remain unchanged, and will be more stable.
Other changes are minor and do not change the behavior of the network. RFC-0017 is just a consequence of RFC-11, and it stops minters from going offline for longer than a year and coming back to mint. We did not see this as fair, so the coinage counter is reset after a year now. Limiting coinage disincentivizes extremely long term periodic minting, thereby making continuous minting more attractive.
-- Peerchemist, Peercoin Project Lead

Upgrade Instructions

Before installation, make sure to backup your wallet from the main menu.
The v0.9 client can be downloaded from the wallets page of peercoin.net. For users upgrading from v0.8, upgrade instructions can also be found on that page.
For the minority of users that may have skipped v0.8 and are upgrading from v0.7 or earlier, please check these additional instructions from the previous v0.8 release thread as you will need to go through the additional process of rebuilding your block database. If you need help with installation, leave a comment below.

Conclusion

To stay informed as we get closer to the hard fork date, you can follow the latest Peercoin news on our forums, our Twitter, or Reddit.
Other places to follow us:
Facebook LinkedIn BitcoinTalk Youtube Medium
Don't forget you can see the latest updates using the Blockfolio and Delta Apps!
Download Link: https://github.com/peercoin/peercoin/releases/tag/v0.9.0ppc
Final reminder: The upgrade deadline is planned for June 8th, 2020 at 12:00:00 UTC
submitted by Sentinelrv to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Cryptocurrency Investments Part I. Masternodes and ICO, IEO, STO.

Cryptocurrency Investments Part I. Masternodes and ICO, IEO, STO.
Cryptocurrency Investments

https://preview.redd.it/93gz1j4tt2551.jpg?width=2048&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=30a4a18bad8032d77989d315138ee8943886c614
1. Masternodes In fact, the term hides servers with a certain number of blocked coins. They are constantly online and sign blocks. The reward is rewarded in the coins of the network. Creating a masternode is an expensive process that is not accessible to every investor. Everyone who wants to set up a masternode must go through a kind of financial selection - to buy a large number of cryptocurrencies. The amount determined by the rules of the network is frozen on the wallet of the owner of the masternode. It is worth noting that the freezing of a significant amount of funds in little-known cryptocurrencies can cause serious losses, primarily due to the volatility of the cryptocurrency market, and secondly, low liquidity when selling, that is, it can be traded on an exchange with a trading volume of $ 10 (at an acceptable price to you price). Analyze information on bitcointalk and other cryptocurrency forums in order to know how the project is developing. Or you will be engaged not in investments, but in the game of roulette. Since the rate of most cryptocurrencies can change by hundreds of percent during the year, it is almost impossible to calculate the future yield of the masternode in dollars. Investors can only focus on the current profit paid to the owners of the main nodes in various cryptocurrencies.
Regardless of the selected cryptocurrency, setting up a masternode is reduced to sequentially performing 3 steps:
Configuring software for the masternode to work on a remote server.
Buying a sufficient amount of cryptocurrency and sending it to your own wallet tied to a masternode.
Start masternode.
Reliable requirements are placed on the reliability of masternodes: The server must be available 24/7, only insignificant periods of disconnection from the network are allowed (several hours a year). A node needs a dedicated IP address to operate. The speed of the Internet connection should be constant, without significant drawdowns. Ensuring the fulfillment of these conditions in your home or apartment is quite difficult. The user will need to connect a dedicated IP, constantly keep ready a backup communication channel and provide uninterrupted power to the computer in case of a power outage. In practice, it is much simpler and cheaper to rent a virtual server (VPS) or use the services of specialized hosting services that offer their help in setting up a masternode. The unpredictability of the cryptocurrency rate is the main danger in creating a masternode. A prolonged market downturn can significantly increase the payback period. The popularity of the currency also affects the profitability of the masternode: the more transactions go through the blockchain, the higher the reward for the owner of the node.
When choosing a masternode, you should pay attention to the following parameters:
1. How long a project is on the market - the more the better. Coins that were created less than a year ago should be treated with caution, however, they just provide the opportunity to receive super-profits. 2. Capitalization - the higher the better. 3. ROI - return on investment. This term defines the return on investment for a certain period of time. It is better to calculate it yourself, since monitoring services try to impress investors and calculate it for short periods of time, including one day, which does not make sense at all. 4. The dynamics of changes in the price of coins. The yield of a masternode may have little or no effect on the outcome of an investment if the price of a coin changes regularly and exhibits an unclear long-term trend. Be sure to analyze the behavior of the value of the coin over the past few months. It is desirable that it be stable and change in accordance with the behavior of Bitcoin. In addition, the changes should be smooth. 5. Developers Examine the team representatives and their past achievements. It is desirable that the developers already had some kind of worthwhile product. At a minimum, they should not be implicated in all kinds of scam schemes - this will partially exclude the possibility of manipulating coin prices or the banal disappearance of the project.
https://masternodes.pro/statistics
https://masternodes.online/
MNO is a masternode coin monitoring and stats service. MNO does not research or recommend any coin. Do your own research and invest at your own risk. ROI changes often and is not the most important factor. Please consider Dev Team - Community - PURPOSE/Platform - Liquidity - Wallet when making masternode purchases.
Masternodes.online uses the CoinGecko API and selected verified exchanges for ALL price, volume and marketcap numbers for validation. The only exceptions are ICOs and newly listed coins that have not yet been listed on CoinGecko or on verified exchanges.
2. ICO, IEO, STO ICO, Initial coin offering - a form of attracting investments in the form of selling to investors a fixed number of new units of cryptocurrencies. The primary exchange offer, IEO is a variant of ICOs managed directly by cryptocurrency exchanges. In the ICO, investors buy tokens in order to benefit from an increase in the value of the asset, or to access the platform services. In STO, investors invest their money in order to receive dividends, an influx of finance or a voting right that is directly tied to a security. Choosing a project for investment: Field of activity Project white paper Presentation Project roadmap Social Networks (audience size, project activity) Team (Developer Profiles) Advisers Estimates of ICO project trackers Difference from competitors Institutional Investors Token Economics (total issue, distribution) Soft Cap and HC Smart contract Github Discounts on pre-sale There are also platforms that are engaged in collective investment in ICOs, therefore you can invest a smaller amount.
Also track projects through ICO trackers:
https://topicolist.com/
https://icobench.com/
https://icotop.io/
https://icoholder.com/
https://brothersrating.com/
https://www.coinmarketplus.com/
https://foundico.com/
https://icobliss.com/
https://www.trackico.io/
https://icobuffer.com/explore
https://icomarks.com/
https://findico.io/
https://ico-analytics.global/
https://www.listico.io/
In my opinion, it is also very important to keep track of which cryptocurrencies large investment funds are investing in, if you have detailed analytics, which coins most venture capitalists have invested and who are currently trading below the ICO price, write in the comments.
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Useful links to start with - Particl Project 2020

Welcome to Particl Project

With these links, we want to make it as easy as possible to find your favourite content. We do believe it will save you time. Happy reading!
Particl is a privacy-first and censorship-resistant eCommerce platform. Built on blockchain technology. It restores the balance of power towards the individual, not corporations or governments, by decentralizing core aspects of today’s internet and today’s economy.
Particl Marketplace is a multi-vendor marketplace like Amazon but without exposing your personal data, making you earn more money while being able to have products at more reasonable prices.
Privacy first. Leave no trace.

QUICKLINKS

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MARKETPLACE

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HELP | SUPPORT | HOWTO

WHERE ELSE CAN YOU FIND US

CHATS

EVERGREEN ARTICLES

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Ispolink - The first automated workflow platform that utilizes AI and Blockchain technology

Ispolink - The first automated workflow platform that utilizes AI and Blockchain technology
Introduction

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Ispolink is an advanced matchmaking platform designed to address one of the most fundamental challenges currently: finding top talent. According to a survey of global human capital trends from 2019, conducted by Deloitte, respondents were asked to rate their hiring functions. The key findings show that only 6% believe they have the best processes and technology in the classroom 81% of our survey respondents believe that their organizations hiring process is standard or sub-standard. 12% of respondents said they had strong sourcing technology and only 1% said they had strong screening technology.
So, what has Ispolink done to solve these problems? Let's find out !!!
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First, they are trying to empower companies to take over their positions by providing them with all the tools to implement and manage the entire hiring process effectively - from application screening Members, through different interview stages until the final proposal is made, can all be done in the platform.
To address the major limitations and scalability issues that may be encountered on the Ethereum main network, Ispolink will incorporate Matic Network expansion technology. Matic is a class 2 scaling solution, achieving scale using side chains for off-chain calculations while still ensuring asset security using Plasma frameworks and Proofof- Stake (PoS). solve scalability and usability issues while not compromising on hierarchy. Matic tries to solve scalability and usability issues while not affecting the decentralization and utilization of the existing developer community and ecosystem. Matic Network is a side / side chain expansion solution for existing platforms to provide outstanding scalability and user experience for DApps / user functions.

Ispolink Tokens

The Ispolink token is designed as means of payment in the Ispolink ecosystem that enables purchases of services within the platform like subscription packages for companies, featured job seekers, etc. Alternatively, users would be able to pay for services with debit/credit cards. However, the platform users that choose Ispolink token as payment method are entitled to receive discounted price of the purchased service. The Ispolink token will also incentivize and reward active and engaged users when certain conditions are met.
Key Features
  1. Machine learning We use Machine Learning to coordinate the best competitors for your business
  2. Installed Crypto Payment You can pay for all administration with an implicit crypto installment framework
  3. Easy to use We care deeply about meeting your own clients and giving you an intuitive and simple interface to use


Whitepaper: https://ispolink.com/assets/Ispolink_Whitepaper_v1.pdf Website: https://ispolink.com/ Telegram: https://t.me/ispolink Your BitcoinTalk profile link: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2426201
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MyTower: A One Stop Solution for all of your Corporate Lighting Needs

MyTower: A One Stop Solution for all of your Corporate Lighting Needs

https://preview.redd.it/9t9i0z19e7y31.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=d8e3a92aa467a35a3777dd0907c190f0109b71c9
Are you a contractor, a project manager, or a consultant looking for a quality LED lighting solutions for your next tower project? We know the difficulties you face while you deal in this industry mainly because of the hectic sourcing process, trust deficiency between you and the retailers, and not to mention the expensive and inefficient payment process. The pricing being another of your concerns, of course!
It is a general understanding that big projects involve the gruelling process and big funds allocation. The costs of everything that goes with the stages of building, designs, and lighting are excessively extravagant. Add to this, you need expertise in the LED lighting as there are certain specifications that no non-specialist can easily understand, and consequently, that may result in getting the wrong product at a high price.
Enter BuyAnyLight (BAL) MyTower, a dedicated protocol explicitly created to facilitate the LED light sourcing process for tower projects. It offers features that make it a perfect solution for industry players such as project owners, consultants, and contractors.
The BAL MyTower Protocol uses an AI-Powered matching engine that utilizes machine learning-based algorithms to ensure that the buyer’s demands are presented before the right manufacturer while taking care of quality and pricing. Moreover, it adds trust into the payment process by acting as an Escrow, meaning that your payments remain secured until and unless you have received what you had ordered.
Going Beyond Lighting
BAL MyTower protocol offers the utmost expertise in LED product acquisition. It ensures that clients get the best value for their money in the shortest possible time while also making sure the most competitive prices for corporate customers. Moreover, it provides you free of cost consultation from industry experts, so you can be sure that you are getting the most cutting-edge solution on the market.
More reasons to consider signing-up for BAL MyTower Package?
• Trustless payments enabled escrow
• You pay only when you have confirmed all of the products and the design
• Free of cost Lux Calculation and Design Consultation from industry experts
• Free of cost-registration and proposals
• Round the clock dedicated experts for all your LED lighting queries
The BuyAnyLight team’s experience throughout the years and in-depth technical expertise will save you money and will give you the most effective lighting solution. If you have any questions, feel free to have a Live Chat with us on the website or leave us an email.
Visit https://buyanylight.com
Check our LinkedIn profile
Join our growing Telegram Community
Give us a Follow on Twitter, Instagram, Reddit, and Facebook
Subscribe to our YouTube channel
Join our discussions at BitcoinTalk and GitHub
submitted by BuyAnyLight to BuyAnyLight [link] [comments]

2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Thanksgiving Update

05-APR-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Bull Market…?
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg50467456#msg50467456
20-APR-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Easter Update
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg50681435#msg50681435
12-MAY-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Sell In May And Go Away?
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg51017295#msg51017295
17-JUN-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Solstice Update
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg51505513#msg51505513
28-JUL-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Inflection Point
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg51975328#msg51975328
26-OCT-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Trick or Treat…?
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg52880531#msg52880531
24-NOV-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Thanksgiving Update
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg53171045#msg53171045
24-DEC-2019 Cryptocurrency (Elliott Wave): Christmas Update
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg53430396#msg53430396
From an Elliott Wave perspective, two scenarios are under consideration at this inflection point: a continuing Bull Scenario or a Bear Scenario.
In either scenario, the Elliott Wave model proposes a five wave structure, consisting of: three advancing bull market waves, interwoven with two declining bear market waves. Overlaying this model onto Bitcoin suggests:
Wave-1: the first bull market wave 2010-2013 (1219 days), followed by; Wave-2: the first bear market wave 2013-2015 (426 days), followed by; Wave-3: the second bull market wave 2015-2018 (1065 days), followed by; Wave-4: the second bear market wave 2018-2019 (363 days), followed by; Wave-5: the third and final bull market wave 2019-? 
—BLX: https://i.imgur.com/iGXd6tX.png
The five aforementioned have been considered as PRIMARY degree waves —such waves elapse the course of a few months to a couple of years. Each PRIMARY degree wave is constituted of five INTERMEDIATE degree waves; and in turn, so forth into smaller degree fractals.
The Bull Scenario suggests Wave-5 is still underway, with subdividing and extending waves headed for new all-time highs.
The Bear Scenario suggests Wave-5 completed at the 26-JUN-2019 high as a truncated fifth wave failure, and a bear market is underway.
Bull Scenario
The bullish scenario suggests a continuing bull market is underway. PRIMARY[5] wave started from the 06-FEB-2019 low, and has completed its first parabolic uptrend labelled as INTERMEDIATE(1) wave at the 26-JUN-2019 high.
—BTC: https://i.imgur.com/KYg0V4j.png
INTERMEDIATE(2) wave pullback started at the 26-JUN-2019 high, and retraced an almost Fibonacci 61.8% thus far of the 2019 bull market, into the 23-OCT-2019 low.
This 4-month decline had initially appeared to have completed an INTERMEDIATE(2) wave pullback when the market suddenly spiked and surged over 40% within a day —attributed to news of Chinese leader Xi Jinping reportedly stating China should “seize the opportunity” offered by blockchain. The surge was the third largest 24-hour price gain in Bitcoin's history.
However, since the spike high on 26-OCT-2019, the market has steadily sold-off and now returned back to the 23-OCT-2019 low; and hence, erasing the entire late OCT surge. The surge is now being considered as a B-wave as part of an ongoing INTERMEDIATE(2) wave pullback. In hindsight, it ought to have been obvious this Thanksgiving Turkey isn’t cooked yet:
“B waves are phonies. They are sucker plays, bull traps, speculators' paradise, orgies of odd-lotter mentality or expressions of dumb institutional complacency (or both). They often involve a focus on a narrow list of stocks, are often ‘unconfirmed’ by other averages, are rarely technically strong, and are virtually always doomed to complete retracement by wave C. If the analyst can easily say to himself, ‘There is something wrong with this market,’ chances are it's a B wave.” —Elliott Wave Principle Key to Market Behavior; A.J. Frost, Robert Prechter.
From the B-wave high set on 26-OCT-2019, C-wave of INTERMEDIATE(2) wave pullback has been underway and is expected to conclude at the following Fibonacci support zones, using BITSTAMP:
@7230: 61.8% Fibonacci retracement from 15-DEC-2018 to 26-JUN-2019. [AVG] @5425: 78.6% Fibonacci retracement from 15-DEC-2018 to 26-JUN-2019. [MAX] @4350: 88.6% Fibonacci retracement from 15-DEC-2018 to 26-JUN-2019. [WARNING: Bull Market Terminated?] 
In addition to the aforementioned support zones, the following additional midway Fibonacci zones can be sought as support for this current INTERMEDIATE(2) decline, using BITSTAMP:
@7055: Wave-C = Wave-A * 0.500 @6280: Wave-C = Wave-A * 0.618 @5170: Wave-C = Wave-A * 0.786 
Summary of support zones, using BITSTAMP: 7230, 7055, 6280, 5425, 5170, 4350
At time of writing, price is currently meandering between the first two aforementioned support levels.
Once INTERMEDIATE(2) wave pullback has completed, a rising INTERMEDIATE(3) is expected to commence to resume the bull market. Such a wave is expected to unfold parabolically in nature, and at a minimum, meet or exceed the PRIMARY[3] high set on 17-DEC-2017. In both price and time, this wave is expected to be the longest of the PRIMARY[5] bull market.
Where the PRIMARY[5] bull market ends is open to interpretation and speculation.
From an Elliott Wave perspective: A common wave relationship guides the price of the fifth wave to be equal to; or extend a Fibonacci 1.618 or 2.618 times; the length from the low of the first wave through to the high of third wave; projected from the low of the fourth wave. This provides a conservative target of the current bull market to conclude between $22,912 or $35,127 or $54,892, calculated using the BraveNewCoin (BLX) index:
@22912: PRIMARY[5] = (PRIMARY[1] + PRIMARY[3]) * 1 @35127: PRIMARY[5] = (PRIMARY[1] + PRIMARY[3]) * 1.618 @54892: PRIMARY[5] = (PRIMARY[1] + PRIMARY[3]) * 2.618 
—BLX: https://i.imgur.com/Mz3IHcD.png
As and when the waves develop and progress, and in the event of subdividing and extending waves, revised price targets shall be calculated with renewed projections.
Bear Scenario
The bear market scenario suggests the 2019 bull market was a short-lived affair, and PRIMARY[5] terminated as a failed-fifth truncated wave.
PRIMARY[5] started from the 15-DEC-2018 low and completed at the 26-JUN-2019 high. A Fibonacci 88.6% retracement of this uptrend is at 4350 BITSTAMP —a decline to this point ought to signal the goose is cooked and market has favoured to deflate.
—BTC: https://i.imgur.com/OZjUq7g.png
In this scenario, five completed PRIMARY degree waves have completed a CYCLE I wave structure. And now, a CYCLE II wave bear market pullback is underway and headed to break below the 2018 low.
—BLX: https://i.imgur.com/fzmPfhy.png
The wider cryptocurrency market in terms of the Altcoins currently appear to support the outlook of a bear market. So far in 2019, the price structure of majority Altcoins has seemingly unfolded in corrective A-B-C advancing waves, instead of impulsive 1-2-3-4-5 waves. This suggests the majority of Altcoins may be set to break their respective 2018 lows unless an intervention can be coordinated…
—ETH: https://i.imgur.com/AwmCpAh.png
Analysis is purely speculative, and projections are indicative of price & structure, not time. Happy Thanksgiving!
UPDATES: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5128394.msg53197756#msg53197756
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